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Educate yourself on Hemp & CBD, Education is the key, Look at our FACTS!

Hemp

/hɛmp/

noun

  1. the cannabis plant.

Hemp is another name for the Cannabis Sativa L plant, of the Cannabaceae family.
It is the variation of the plant grown specifically for its more industrial uses.

Hemp usually contains less THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) than other variations.
Cannabis plants can contain as much as 30% of the psychoactive compound, whereas Hemp would contain less than 0.2%

Hemp has been cultivated around the world for thousands of years, with uses as early as 8000BC in the Central Asia. Spreading across the Mediterranean, into Europe and finally to the Americas.

Hemp has been used in many applications from Strings twines ropes and cords, to fine fabrics for clothing. It has also been used as  a great food source, as Hemp seeds contain an oil rich in Omegas 3, 6 and 9. They are great for protein and fibre alongside Vitamin E and Magnesium.

In more recent times the applications have become further developed and Hemp is being turned into more technologically advanced products such as Bio Plastics.

What is CBD

Cannabidiol - More commonly known as CBD is a naturally occurring compound found in the cannabaceae family. It is found mostly in the leaves and flowers.

It is one of the NON psychoactive compounds found meaning it doesn’t provide a “high”.

CBD occurs in all strains of the plant, but the levels vary from strain to strain.

CBD is one of 113 compounds found within the plant and was discovered in 1940 and its chemical structure was determined by scientists in 1963.

CBD accounts for around 40% of the plants extracts.

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THC vs CBD

THC
Delta - 9 - Tetrahydrocannabidiol
Consumed for recreational purposes
Binds with the endocannabinoid receptors directly which can cause a psychoactive effect or the “high”
Mostly Illegal
CBD

Cannabidiol
Consumed for a healthy lifestyle
Doesn’t bind to the receptors, it just activates them creating a non-psychoactive result
Mostly Legal

Hemp vs Marijuana

Hemp

  • Hemp is a classification of cannabis that contains less than 0.3% THC
  • It is grown with minimal care and adapts to many climates
  • It has a slimmer leaf and a taller plant
  • Used for Food, Plastics, Supplements, Clothing, Ropes, Construction materials and more
  • 108-120 day cycle

Marijuana

  • Marijuana is a classification of cannabis that contains more than 0.3% THC, Usually 5-35%
  • Its cultivated in carefully controlled environments
  • It has a broader leaf and shorter bushier plants
  • Used for recreational purposes
  • 60-90 day cycle

Hemp vs Trees

HEMP

  • Hemp plants take approx 100 days to grow.
  • Hemp is made up of approx 85% cellulose.
  • Hemp paper resists decomposition so can last for longer.
  • Does not yellow with age.
  • Hemp paper can be recycled 7+ times.
  • Requires Fewer chemicals for processing

TREES

  • Trees can take from 50-100 years to grow.
  • Trees are made up of 30-35% cellulose.
  • Tree paper composts well so can decompose over time.
  • Yellows with age.
  • Tree based paper can only be recycled 3 times.
  • Can require as much as 8x more chemicals for processing.

Hemp vs Cotton

HEMP

  • Hemp uses around ¼ the amount of water for its growth than cotton.
  • Hemp doesn’t require pesticides as it is a natural weed killer.
  • Hemp can return the nutrients to the soil.
  • Hemp can produce 1500lb of fibre per acre.
  • Stronger fibres that take longer to break down.

COTTON

  • Cotton growth requires significantly more water usage than hemp.
  • Cotton growth accounts for over 15% of the world's use of pesticides.
  • Cotton growth pollutes the water and the chemicals can scorch the land.
  • Cotton can produce approx 500lb of fibre per acre.
  • Softer Fibres that break down over time.

Hemp Protein vs Whey Protein

HEMP

  • Hemp protein is a plant based product
  • It is high in Omega oils and Essential Fatty Acids.
  • No additives are required in the production
  • Contains No dairy, Lactose, Soya, Artificial Colours, Preservatives or Flavourings
  • No fillers are added to the product so you typically need less.
  • It is easier to digest due to there being no dairy base.
  • Doesn’t require heat in the production.

WHEY

  • It is an animal based by product.
  • High in Unsaturated Fats and Cholesterol.
  • Additives are required in the production process.
  • May contain lactose, Many products also include sweeteners, artificial colours and flavourings.
  • Many products include fillers to bulk the products out so you typically need more to get the same benefit.
  • As it is a dairy based product it is harder to digest.
  • Need heat in the production which damages the proteins.

Uses of Hemp

Then (before 1920)

  • Paints
  • Ink
  • Varnish
  • Paper
  • Bank Notes
  • Food
  • Clothing
  • Textiles
  • Ropes / String / Yarn / Twine
  • Sails
  • Sacks
  • Soap
  • Oil
  • Bedding
  • Animal Feed
  • Canvas

Now (after 1920)

  • Bio Plastics
  • Dairy Alternatives
  • Bio - Fuel
  • Insulation
  • Building Materials
  • Toys - ie. Lego
  • Cosmetics
  • Bath/Beauty Products
  • Health Foods
  • Supplements
  • Chemical Absorbent
  • Filters
  • Biocomposites
  • Beer
  • Flour
  • Animal bedding
  • Animal feed
  • Solvents
  • Coatings
  • Carpeting
  • Caulking
  • Fibreglass Substitute
  • Packaging
  • Organic composts
  • Acrylics
  • Tarpauling
  • Netting

Cannabinoids

There are over 113 Cannabinoids found in Cannabis, with THC and CBD being the 2 most commonly known.

Alongside these 2 common cannabinoids are :

THCa - Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid - This is just one of the compounds found in Raw Cannabis. It has non intoxicating properties. However as the plant dries, the THCa slowly turns into THC.

CBDa - Cannabidiolic Acid - This is the acidic precursor to “active” CBD. It is found within the raw plant. CBD is formed from CBDa.

CBN - Cannabinol - This is a slightly psychoactive cannabinoid. It is produced when THC degrades. This cannabinoid is classed as a controlled substance.

CBG - Cannabigerol - This cannabinoid is important in the plants biochemistry, as it tends to turn into CBD and THC over time.

CBC - Cannabichromene - This is a non psychoactive compound, produced in the Trichomes (resin glands) of the plant.

THCV - Tetrahydrocannabivarin - This compound is similar to THC and also has psychoactive properties.

CBDv - Cannabidivarin - This compound is non psychoactive and similar to CBD. It is predominantly found in strains with a lower THC content.

Terpenes

Terpenes are the compounds within the plant that are responsible for the aroma. Over 200 terpenes have been found in Cannabis but only a few are of significant value, enough to cause a plant changing aroma.

Some commonly found terpenes are -

Myrcine - This is the most common terpene found in cannabis, it is also commonly found in Mangoes.

Limonene - This is found in the skins of citrus fruits and attributes to their aroma. It is commonly found in orange, lemon, mandarin, lime, and grapefruit too.

Terpinolene - This tepene has a very woody, piney smoky aroma.  It is also found in tea tree, conifers, apple, cumin, sage, rosemary and lilac.

Beta-Caryophyllene:  This has a very woody, peppery taste and is usually found in Clove oil, rosemary and hops.

Pinene: Alpha and Beta - There are 2 different types of pinene, both giving a different aroma,
Alpha provides the aromas for Pine needles and rosemary, which Beta provides the aromas for Hops parsley, dill and basil.

Humulene -  This is the common terpene of hops, it is also found in sage, and ginseng. It has a slight earthy and floral aroma.

Linalool - This terpene is commonly produced in plants around the world. It is mostly found in orange, lavender, rose, rosewood, and coriander.

Alpha Bisabolol - also known as Levomenol is the terpene found in chamomile.

What is the entourage effect?

This is the name given to the effect produced by the combined interaction of Cannabinoids, Terpenes and Fatty Acids.
It is the effect of all the compounds and cannabinoids working in unison rather than one or two working in isolation.

It seems that people can maintain their healthy lifestyles more easily with products that contain multiple cannabinoids, compared to those containing single isolated compounds and cannabinoids.

This is why Full plant or Whole plant extracts are often favoured.

Types of products - explanations

Tinctures  -
A tincture is a concentrated liquid form of a plant/herb extract.
Tinctures are different from oils in that they usually have flavourings included.
They are taken orally.

Edibles -
CBD edibles are simply CBD infused consumable products.
These usually come in the form of Gummies, Chocolates and Candies such as Honey Sticks.

Topicals  -
A topical is a type of product applied to the skin. This usually comes in the form of Creams, Gels, Balms and Lotions.

Cosmetics  -
Cosmetics are defined as products designed to alter the appearance of the face, or texture and fragrance of the body.This includes Moisturisers, lip balms, Bath salts, bath bombs and Lip balms.

Raw Extract  -
A Raw Extract is just that, the Cannabinoids extracted from the plant before its been processed removing any additional plant material. It is likely to contain more plant nutrients that other extracts.

Full Spectrum Extract -
Once the plant material is removed from Raw extract, it is known as Full Spectrum Extract.
It is made using the whole plant and therefore contains more compounds such as cannabinoids and terpenes.

Broad Spectrum Extract -

Broad spectrum is very similar to Full spectrum with just 1 compound removed. The THC is isolated and fully removed to make THC free products.

Isolate -

Isolate is the purest form of a compound. The single compound required is isolated and extracted from the oil, removing any plant matters, cannabinoids, terpenes and other unwanted compounds.

Carrier Oils - 

This is the name given to the oil the CBD extract is combined with the create a product. Carrier oils can help the absorption rate of the CBD.

The most commonly used are -

MCT - (Medium Chain Triglycerides) explained simply is a Coconut or Palm oil derivative with some of the fatty acids removed.

Hemp seed oil - Extracted from the hemp plant it is full of essential fatty acids.

Avocado - This oil isn’t as effective as MCT for a tincture but works well for a topical. it contains a number of vitamins and healthy fats.

Hemp and Bees

According to studies by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) the number of Bees are declining due to pest, pesticides and Poor nutrition from lack of pollens.

The growth of flowering hemp plants could help with this decline.

Hemp can act as its own pesticide, reducing the need for the bee harming chemicals such as Pesticides, Insecticides and Herbicides..

Researchers from Colorado State University say that “Industrial hemp can play an important role in providing sustained nutritional options for bees during the cropping season.”
Hemp plants tend to flower later in the year when other crops have ceased their flowering. This means bees have access to pollen later in the year helping to combat malnutrition.

The hemp itself doesn’t produce Nectar so honey cannot come directly from the plant, Instead the bees use the pollen as a source of nutrition for themselves and their larvae.

Legislation

The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction states that “In the EU, it is legal to cultivate and supply cannabis plants for hemp fibre if they have low levels of THC”

As Hemp plants are classified as having 0.3% or less, they are then able to be legally cultivated.
However, each country is still able to bring forth its own regulations.

Under UK law it is an offence to cultivate any plant of the genus “Cannabis” except under a Home Office Licence. You need a licence for cultivation and also one for possession.

 

The Home Office can issue licences for use of the non-controlled parts of the plant (ie Seeds and Fibres) but doesn’t allow the use of ‘green’ material (ie leaves and flowers) so these must be lawfully disposed of.
The crops have to be cultivated form approved seeds with a THC content not exceeding 0.2%.

 

When it comes to selling CBD, there are regulations around what you can and cannot claim. The MHRA ( Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency) ensure that under the Human Medicines Regulations 2012, no medical claims are made with regards to CBD products.

If you wish to market the product for Medicinal purposes you must have a product licence ( marketing authorisation). Medicinal products have to meet further safety, quality and efficiency standards before being sold.

In Croatia and Slovenia, they have outright bans on all Cannabis derived products, be it from a hemp or marijuana plant.
Bulgaria, Greece,Cyprus and Ireland, all require a legal limit of 0.2% THC.
Czech republic is 0.3% along with Austria,  who allows the sale as long as it is not sold as a food supplement or medication.
Germany, Finland, Denmark and Norway all require Medical approval or prescriptions.

France have  0% limit meaning products have NO THC at all.

 

American law is slightly different to that of Europe

The Hemp Farming Act of 2018 saw removal of hemp from the Controlled Substances Act and the reclassification as an ordinary agricultural commodity.
As of 2019, at least 47 states have enacted legislation and allowed the cultivation of Hemp, and manufacture of products from Hemp. Including CBD products.

The legal THC limit for the hemp derived  products in the USA is 0.3%, as opposed to the 0.2% limit in the EU. Meaning many US brands would not be legally compliant when sold within the EU.

Although CBD is legal under federal law there are still regulations with regards to Medical claims. The FDA ( The Food and Drug Administration) prohibit the sale of CBD in any unapproved health products, dietary supplements or food.

Throughout Asia the laws on Hemp/CBD products are some of the strictest.
Japan has a 0% limit on THC.

In South Korea it is legal to use Hemp derived CBD but only for medical purposes.
In China you need police approval to grow hemp, and it must have no more than 0.3% THC.
In India growing hemp requires permissions however CBD laws are very unclear.

Accreditations

GMP -
GMP stands for Good Manufacturing Practices. It is a system that ensures products are produced to a consistent controlled quality, are appropriate for use, and meet Marketing authorisation requirements.
It covers all aspects of the businesses from materials and equipment to premises and hygiene.

Sellers can be:

GMP compliant   (This just means they follow the standards but aren’t verified) or
GMP certified      (This means their compliance has been verified and certification provided).

ISO - stands for The International Organisation for Standardisation. It is a Food Safety Management System that is applied to any organisation in the Food industry, be it a Farmer or Restaurant/Supermarket, and everywhere in between.

Being ISO certified means they have a food safety management systems in place and the products are produced in a clean sanitary environment.

ISO 9001:2015 certification- is a generalised Quality Management standard that can be applied to any kind of organisation.

ISO 22000:2018 certification - is sector specific Food Safety Management Standards which is required for anyone working within the food industry, and meets HACCP standards.

HACCP - stands for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point. It is an International standard for effective control of food safety.
As of 2006 all food based companies must have HACCP and ISO (Food management standards) standards in place.

MHRA - stands for Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency. They regulate all medicines used within the UK to ensure they work and are safe. Without MHRA approval, you cannot make any medical claims with regards to the products you produce/supply.

FDA - The FDA is the US Department of Food and Drug Administration. They are the people responsible within the US for ensuring all medical products are safe and compliant. Without FDA approval, you cannot make medical claims.

EMA - European Medicines Agency. They are a scientific agency who evaluate and continually monitor medicines designed for human and animal consumption.

HMPC - stands for The Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products. They work alongside the EMA  provide scientific knowledge and opinions on herbal substances and their preparation. They also provide information such as recommended uses.